Learning Portfolio Four – A1 Credibility Examples

Presumed Credibility

Wikipedia is a good example of presumed credibility because at face value it looks credible and most people automatically assume it can be trusted. As most people do not have academic background the perceived notion of Wikipedia is that, while peer-reviewed it can be a trusted source of information.

Image result for wikipedia home page

Reputed Credibility

Amazon is an example of Reputed credibility because as a whole the site is well received and liked. It has a high rating when compared to other sites of a similar nature and is usually well like by its customers.

Image result for amazon home page

Surface Credibility

eBay is an example of surface credibility because it is a site that many people look at while web surfing and doesn’t have quite the ratings sites such as Amazon have. Its visual design is pleasant and utilizes bright colours and is easy to look at and navigate.

Image result for ebay home page

Earned Credibility

Google is an example of earned credibility as almost everyone uses it. It allows people to search for information quickly and people inherently understand how it works and that it is reliable.

Image result for google home page

 

References

Thibeault, J., & Wadsworth, K. (2014). Recommend this! : Delivering digital experiences that people want to share. Hoboken: Wiley.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147-181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Images retrieved from Google Image Search
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Learning Portfolio Four – Q3 Credibility and Non-Profit Organizations

The creation of credible looking non-profit organization websites has become an issue in the last decade simply because it has adversely affected the public’s perception of non-profit organizations as a whole.  There are many ways in which this has affected non-profit organizations and their credibility;

  • People have become more aware of possible scam website or emails and are less likely to visit sites they do not know.
  • There has been a significant increase in the number of scammers on the web and people have become wary of this fact.
  • With the increased ease of making websites, even non-profit ones, people have become skeptical of websites that ask for payment methods or their credit card details.
  • It is becomingly increasingly difficult to vet and verify all of the websites that pop up because there are simply too many of them to do so.

Due to these facts small non-profit organizations without a huge public face have faced increasing issues because they are less likely to be able to draw in supporters and donations because people are more wary of them. Even if they are legitimate organizations that simply want to help people they have trouble because of the perceived web credibility that surrounds smaller organizations.

Learning Portfolio Four – Q2 Wikipedia Credibility

Wikipedia is not an acceptable source simply because, being peer reviewed, it cannot be truly credible. Wikipedia can be edited or altered by anyone meaning that while the original post may have been written by a credible source or using other credible sources it can be edited at a later date. This is supposed to be used as a way be able to update posts and make them more accurate however, the reverse can also be true. Anyone can edit it meaning that people could edit it so the information is either inaccurate or out right wrong. This is why any information found on Wikipedia should be independently verified by other source before being taken as true. However, it can be used as a springboard for finding either a basic overview of a topic or as a source for other resources but it should never be the only source a student uses. Many students make this mistake because the Wikipedia page looks professional and can look credible and the information gathered can be entirely plausible. This is why it is so dangerous for student who are either new to student life, or have never been told that it should not be used as a source. It can be detrimental to a students research simply because while it looks credible it simply cannot be taken at face value.

Learning Portfolio Four – Q1 Website Credibility

Website credibility is vitally important, not just to me as an academic student, but to the world as a whole because without it many people could be scammed or worse. Students must endeavor to check the credibility of any and all sources they use for many reasons;

  • So the correct author is given the credit. Plagiarizing is a huge issue today because of the wide access we have to different peoples ideas and theories, without checking credibility we may give the credit to the wrong person. Doing this would also be a form of accidental plagiarism and should be avoided.
  • So we know that the information is true and accurate. On sites such as Wikipedia, which are peer reviewed, it is possible to alter information making it incorrect. If we use incorrect information not only does that affect our work but also so that we don’t continue to spread misinformation.

However, it is also important to check credibility in everyday life because otherwise people could scam us into buying stolen or illegal products or into giving money to people pretending to be from charities when they are not. In society today it is very easy to set up a credible looking website which looks legit for the purpose of trying to steal money from hard working, good people.

Website credibility is very important and should be a priority for students and the general public as a whole.

Thibeault, J., & Wadsworth, K. (2014). Recommend this! : Delivering digital experiences that people want to share. Hoboken: Wiley.

Trust Verified. Retrieved from: https://trust-verified.org/the-importance-of-website-credibility/

Kelly Walsh. (2012). The Importance of Source Evaluation and Content Credibility Skills for Today’s Students. Retrieved from: http://www.emergingedtech.com/2012/05/the-importance-of-source-evaluation-and-content-credibility-skills-for-todays-students/

Learning Portfolio Three – Q3 Psychology of Design

The use of psychology allows companies and creators to understand the thoughts and feelings of their customers and understand what they want. This ties into aesthetic usability as how a person perceives a products appearance relates to the products sales and popularity. If a product designer understands the psychology of their target audience they can add features or alter the appearance to better suit the audience and increase its popularity and sales. Without this understanding designers would have little to go off when in the design process which would hamper the process and possibly affect their overall ability to create products which suit the people they hope to attract. A such the study of psychology is vital to the design process and overall creation of many products we buy today.

Learning Portfolio Three – Q2 Chunking

Chunking refers to the process of breaking up information in order to help reduce cognitive loads and how people learn. It is the process of breaking up long strings of information into smaller units that are easier to read and remember. These can be made up of numbers, letters or words and can be especially useful when using numbers. It is often used on Debit/Credit cards, phone numbers and even shopping lists.

Image result for credit card(Image Retrieved from: https://www.mastercard.com.au/en-au/consumers/find-card-products/credit-cards.html)

This image shows how the 16 digit card number is broken into 4 groups of 4 numbers, without this formatting the number would read; 5412751234123456 which is much harder to read. The breaks in the string help to activate the memory center of the brain and helps the recall center to be able to memorize the information.

Chunking is so helpful because it helps commit these strings of information to memory. By breaking up the information it helps imprint in them in your short and long term memory because smaller information strings are easier to remember. When remembering the first set of numbers our minds instinctively remember the next set of numbers and we are able to remember long strings of information with little effort. This is so effective because the brain interprets the information differently that if it is one long string. It also helps to activate the memory center of the brain and allows the brain to recall information with less work.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., & Elam, K. (2010). Universal principles of design : 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design ([2nd ed.]. ed.). Beverly, Mass.: Rockport

Chunking Strategy. Retrieved From: http://thepeakperformancecenter.com/educational-learning/thinking/chunking/chunking-as-a-learning-strategy/

Learning Portfolio Three – Q1 Summery

Performance loads refer to the amount of physical and mental activity that goes into performing a particular task or goal. Depending on the amount of physical or mental tasks a person needs to make the performance load increases and it becomes more difficult to perform the task. However by decreasing these needs the performance load decreases making the task easier to complete with fewer errors. There are two types of performance loads cognitive and kinetic.

The Cognitive Load Theory (CLT)was created to help and enhance the presentation of information in order to assist people in learning (Sweller, Ayres & Kalyuga, 2011, p.v). Cognitive loads are basically the amount of mental activity that is needed to perform and complete tasks. This puts strain on the human mind if too much information is required and the CLT was created in order to help people decrease cognitive loads.

Kinetic loads are the amount of physical activity or effort needed to complete a task or goal. This includes activities such as; typing. By decreasing the amount of kinetic work needed tasks become easier to complete and people are less likely to make errors. The article states that “minimizing range of motion and travel distances, and automating repetitive tasks” (Lidwell, Holden, Butler & Elam, 2010, p.178) are good strategies to decrease kinetic loads.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., & Elam, K. (2010). Universal principles of design : 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design ([2nd ed.]. ed.). Beverly, Mass.: Rockport

Sweller, J., Ayres, P., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load theory (Explorations in the learning sciences, instructional systems and performance technologies). New York: Springer.

Van Gog, T., Ericsson, K., Rikers, R., & Paas, F. (2005). Instructional design for advanced learners: Establishing connections between the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and deliberate practice. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(3), 73-81.

Phan, H., Ngu, B., & Yeung, A. (2017). Achieving optimal best: Instructional efficiency and the use of cognitive load theory in mathematical problem solving. Educational Psychology Review, 29(4), 667-692.

Learning Portfolio Two – Q2 Examples

The Samsung galaxy series is a good example of functional and aesthetic consistency because while the ‘update’ their models every year they all look similar and maintain a similar feel to them. They offer very similar layouts to one another and any big changes they make are mostly aesthetic in nature. The addition of the edge screen was popular because it allowed for more of the surface area to be shown and now it is a major feature of the line. They are also instantly recognizable which is the purpose of both consistency and the aesthetic usability effect.

Image result for samsung galaxy line

(Image retrieved from: https://news.softpedia.com/news/samsung-galaxy-s7-vs-galaxy-s8-notable-progress-in-the-galaxy-s-line-514383.shtml)

In contrast to Samsung we can look at the introduction of Windows 8. Windows 8 made huge changes to the windows format that were wildly unpopular with the public before having to be patched out. It completely removed the Start/Windows button from the task bar, instead you had to press the windows key on the keyboard. It also filled the screen with program tiles which made searching for a particular program difficult. These changes were not well received and are an example of how not sticking to functional consistency can be damaging to sales and the perceived reputation of a company. Windows released 8.1 and reinstated the windows key but the damage was already done and sales of Windows dropped considerably due to this blunder.

(Image retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Features_new_to_Windows_8)

DVD players also use functional consistency because without it many of the smaller companies would be lost in amongst the big name brands. It also helps people to be able to use models that are not theirs (when on holiday or at a friends house). Without some functional consistency there would be far too many different control schemes which would confuse people and make sales much harder because people would be scared to try a new make or model for the fear of it being ‘too difficult’.

Features to Look Out ForMagnavox Smart Wi-Fi Blu-ray Disc Player Bundle

(images received from: https://www.harveynorman.com.au/dvd-players-and-recorders-buying-guide

https://www.hsn.com/products/magnavox-smart-wi-fi-blu-ray-disc-player-bundle/8501950)

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., & Elam, K. (2010). Universal principles of design : 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design ([2nd ed.]. ed.). Beverly, Mass.: Rockport.
Nanda, P., Bos, J., Kramer, K., Hay, C., & Ignacz, J. (2008). Effect of smartphone aesthetic design on users’ emotional reaction. The Tqm Journal, 20(4), pp.348-355.
Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen (2010). “The influence of design aesthetics in usability testing: Effects on user performance and perceived usability”. Applied Ergonomics. 4 (3): 403–410
Tullis, T. (2013). Measuring the user experience : Collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science & Technology.
Lee, Sangwon; Koubeka, Richard J. (2011). “The Impact of Cognitive Style on User Preference Based on Usability and Aesthetics for Computer-Based Systems”. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction. 27(11) pp. 1083-1114

Learning Portfolio Two – Q1 Summary

There are four different types of consistency need when designing products – aesthetic, functional, internal and external. All of which are highly important as they can alter and affect sales and a products popularity.

Aesthetic consistency refers to a products external design. How it looks or feels is vitally important because it makes a product instantly recognizable. Its also helps foster positive feeling towards a particular company, by keeping a similar look or feel to their products they elicit a particular feeling of familiarity and confidence in the item or electronic.

Functional consistency refers to a products particular use and how it is recognizable on site without the need for complicated instructions. A good example of this would be TV remote controls. Even though many different companies manufacture TV sets their remotes also consist of similar layouts and familiar button symbols. By maintaining this consistency to doesn’t matter which brand of TV is in front of you, you are inherently likely to understand how it works and be able to use it. This is the purpose of Functional Consistency (Lee, Koubeka 2011).

Internal and External consistency refers to thing in the wider world which are recognizable and understandable in out day to day lives. Items such as consistent signs and alarm bells, emergency vehicle sirens and road signs are all examples of these consistencies. These foster a sense of trust because they exist to help show that a system is in place (Lidwell, Holden, Butler, & Elam, 2010 p.56).

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., & Elam, K. (2010). Universal principles of design : 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design ([2nd ed.]. ed.). Beverly, Mass.: Rockport.
Nanda, P., Bos, J., Kramer, K., Hay, C., & Ignacz, J. (2008). Effect of smartphone aesthetic design on users’ emotional reaction. The Tqm Journal, 20(4), pp.348-355.
Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen (2010). “The influence of design aesthetics in usability testing: Effects on user performance and perceived usability”. Applied Ergonomics. 4 (3): 403–410
Tullis, T. (2013). Measuring the user experience : Collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science & Technology.
Lee, Sangwon; Koubeka, Richard J. (2011). “The Impact of Cognitive Style on User Preference Based on Usability and Aesthetics for Computer-Based Systems”. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction. 27(11) pp. 1083-1114

Learning Portfolio One – Q2 Examples

Many, if not most, smart phones use the aesthetic usability effect. One of the wider used and most popular of these being the Samsung Galaxy Series. Samsung galaxy phones offer large screens, thin case designs and a wide variety of colour choices, and with a new model releasing almost every year have become hugely popular in recent years. While the aesthetic designs are updated the software changes very little meaning once you know how to use one it is very easy to transition to a newer model making it a popular phone for people who want a new phone without the hassle of leaning the systems all over again.

 

Tablet computers are also a product which benefit from the aesthetic usability effect and for mostly the same reasons as smart phones. While people want new and updated devices most don’t want to have to struggle to learn how to use then so companies like Mac and Samsung offer new product lines with larger screens and other aesthetically pleasing upgrades while maintaining the same ‘easy-to-use’ tag line. This means they keep their customer base because people inherently return to products that are familiar and easy to understand. By maintaining their software that are able to maintain the customer base.

 

DVD and Blu-ray players also follow the aesthetic usability principle as well. DVD players are a product which are widely produced my a number of different companies as such the market is almost saturated. As such many companies have decided to out sell each other using sleek designs and easy to use mechanics. By using sleek cases and easy to understand instructions companies such as Samsung, Sony and Panasonic, all of which manufacture other electronics as well, are able to maintain a competitive edge simply by appealing to peoples taste for stylish, modern and easy products.

 

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., & Elam, K. (2010). Universal principles of design : 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design ([2nd ed.]. ed.). Beverly, Mass.: Rockport.
Meyer, K. (2017). The Aesthetic Usability effect. Nielsen Norman Group. Retrieved from: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/aesthetic-usability-effect/
Nanda, P., Bos, J., Kramer, K., Hay, C., & Ignacz, J. (2008). Effect of smartphone aesthetic design on users’ emotional reaction. The Tqm Journal, 20(4), pp.348-355.
Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen (2010). “The influence of design aesthetics in usability testing: Effects on user performance and perceived usability”. Applied Ergonomics. 4 (3): 403–410
Tullis, T. (2013). Measuring the user experience : Collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science & Technology.